The nearly invisible neo Solar System of
near Earth
water object candidates
as it was on 12 April 2011

A. Zuppero, Paul Sturrock, Costin Manda,
acknowledgment: Gabor Doka, key visualization principles
draft version 2011-05-19_1424
Professional Version
4-th Grade version

Digital algorithmic images were generated of the positions of known and reachable and accessible potential water objects of the solar system. A digital filtering algorithm strongly selects the low gravity objects. Only the low gravity objects are considered accessible in the sense of extractive mining. These first images display the exact location of the points of light that would be seen if an observing device were located somewhere near to but outside the solar system ecliptic plane. Using ephemerides and other descriptive digital data, the algorithm selects only the periodic comets (both known and lost) and the first ~ 1000 largest near earth objects (near earth asteroids). The effect is similar to analog telescope observations in the deep infrared using at least meter-sized telescopes in space. The display is similar to color mapping hyper-spectral images into the human visible spectrum.  Medical CAT scans and MRI are also types of digitally algorithmic hyperspectral images.

Some of the planets and their orbits are included to provide reference. The size of the objects such as planets is proportional to their "algorithmic brightness." A planet brightness and color are determined, for example, by the gravitational potential well that can be used in Oberth maneuvers, such as the Jupiter and Saturn. Another brightness standard is the cultural value for eventual human habitation, such as Mars and Ceres. Similar to analog telescope pictures of distant stars, the digital objects are all points of light whose apparent size is a function of "brightness."

The periodic comet orbits are included as dots with equal time between the dots, and the dots deliberately not connected together, according to Sykes. Observations by Sykes et al. during the 1990's showed dust trails in the far or deep infrared as part of orbits of some neo's. The equal-time dots provide an approximate probability density proportional to the chance of finding a live or extinct periodic comet or dirty permafrost object in the region.

The digital algorithm filters in those near earth objects that would be large enough to be of economic value. The magnitude of 18 or smaller would imply a size of 1/2 to 1 km or larger. Current knowledge of neo properties suggests that of order 40% of them will be friable and hydrated to an extent that heating to 300-500 Celsius will release the expected 5% to 25% water. The criteria is based on the assumption of up to 5 units of water to deliver 1 unit of water, net, to a stable parking orbit around Earth such as L5.

Assuming the sale price is constrained by economics to no more than $100 per kilogram, the neo size constraint results in objects whose value would each at least exceed USD $ 1 Trillion net to L5.

Water is rocket fuel ore, and can be used directly as rocket reaction mass ("rocket fuel") in steam rockets, after being cleaned.

 The unexpected surprise is the visual impact of such a large, apparent swarm of economically valuable objects. Unappreciated until the images spoke our human emotional language, the discovery is of the key item that was missing and without which the Laws of Physics prevented us from occupying th solar system: massive amounts of reaction mass, to satisfy momentum conservation when accelerating in a vacuum.

[[[ read this like
the teleprompter
people use when
giving a speech the modern way.

This document is "scratch paper."

We are looking for which image to use in a presentation. ]]]

I'm going to show you
a recent discovery of

      so much rocket fuel in space
    you could:

jet around the entire solar system of
                     near earth objects,

      become extremely rich.

-- someday, maybe when you are over 40,
    but not now, too bad.

You will see images of what you would see
when you look up in the night sky
but only if:

if you could see like a rattlesnake
-- the cool color of the heat
of your tasty head,

or see like an owl,
but with eyes as big across as your arm,
to see things scurrying like
little dark mice across the night sky

You would see the invisible:
near earth,
near earth objects:

You would see the nearly invisible
  neo solar system.

Your species is blind.
These images are like medical CAT scans,
but of the solar system.
And I bet you can't even say
"digitally algorithmic hyperspectral imager"

Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
    4-th Grade  Version
You are here: at the third blue planet from the Sun.

The red stars are the thousand biggest near earth objects of the solar system.

Forty percent are expected to have some kind of water.

The white stars are comets that come by periodically:
  = water mud permafrost ice, dirt, hydrocarbons, rocks,
       sometimes just extremely black.

Mars, the 4th, a red planet.

Ceres is the 5th,
a rather small planet with low gravity
 and water ice recently observed on its surface.

Jupiter is interesting because it is a
      Heavy Object.
We can
     zoom around it and
     fling ourselves so fast we could zoom to Saturn,
     and even farther.

Professional Version  4-th Grade version
"First views of the near-earth-object solar system through a digital algorithmic hyperspectral telescope with multidimensional filters."
A.Zuppero, 2011-05-04, [myname]
We come to occupy the Solar System not as visitors,
but as victors             
  • water-filter: selecting potential and known water objects,
  • value filter: selecting minimum size, based on "H" magnitude < 18

Only those things worth a $ Trillion Dollars
delivered back here to Earth orbit are any good. 
Deliver water, rocket fuel and minerals
to our gas station across from the moon.
  • accessibility filter: neo mission delta_V ~ "reasonable": When pass/allow filter used, under 4000 m/s to return from Earth-Moon L5; P/comet delta_V under 6500 m/s.
Any place we are going must be
at least as easy as getting to the Moon,
or maybe the Moons of Mars,
or Ceres, a little water planet just past Mars.

  Ceres could be a better alternate Earth,
instead of Mars.

You didn't know that because
the Mars Nazi's kept shouting "Mars! Mars!"

  • low gravity filter: only objects with gravity less than 1/30 of Earth are selected
If we are going to be dirt miners in deep space,
we want to be like SuperMan.

They must have such low enough gravity
that my wife could toss the car over the house.

   And if you jump up too fast,
you could jump off,
 and never get back.
During the last dozen years about 7000 new near earth objects have been discovered by "neologists". Less than about 300 neo's were known during 1999 when we took a hiatus from working on this topic. Digital camera electronics enabled the discoveries. The computer takes digital pictures of the sky though a computer-pointed telescope and picks out those things that move fast with respect to the background stars in the sky. Those things are then tracked intensively. They were looking for objects that might crash into Earth.

The low gravity enables affordable landing and launches, and launches of 1000 tons payloads by relatively small rockets.

Instead, the neologists don't know it yet, they discovered about 1000 objects easier to get to than the moon. When calculating the economic value of the easiest approximately 100 of those would be worth, an interesting answer happened here.

            Water is everywhere.

Water is Rocket fuel.

It's like an oil field in space.

Would supply gas stations out by the moon,
and closer.
Enough of everything to make
giant space ships.

Not now, of course.

The objects of the image are either
   the periodic comets (white stars)
          --- water permafrost hydrocarbon ice objects ,
    near earth objects (neo's, red stars)
          only those bright enough to suggest they are 1 km in size, or greater, and
    gravity potential well objects
         -- heavy planets
            highly useful for Oberth
            thrusting maneuvers,
             which enable interplanet trips.
The locations of all the objects
are exact per calculaions
using Minor Planet Center and
Jet Propulsion Lab Ephemerides
and patterned after examples by
Professor Jeremy Tatum, UVIC, Canada,
for 12 April 2011.

The scale is in Earth-Sun distances, AU.

In the picture seen from past Saturn,
a picture as wide as 8 AU,
you see exactly where the objects were
on 12 April 2011,
the day we started this neo solar system project.

The view is a 4 AU plus/minus wide projection of the solar system, tipped 60 degrees from a normal to the ecliptic and then 30 degrees rotated left. This lest us see the entire accessible formation, the orbits of which extend to just past Jupiter.

The "1 km" assures that of the 40% that do have water,
those would have enough water such that
       if taken from them and delivered to Earth orbit,
       the total payloads would be worth
       at least more than USD $1 Trillion net to Earth orbit
             (earth-moon L5).
"net" means with enough propellant left over to return to the neo and get more.

A rather well known space geologist ( "neo-logist", Dr. Gene Shoemaker, deceased) asserted during the mid 1990's that up to 40 percent of the neo's have between 5% and 25% water, are crunch-able (= friable) clay-like objects, and most of the water can be "cooked" out of them by just heating them at self-cleaning oven temperatures (~ 300 C).

Was he right? We can not believe until our remotely piloted vehicles go there and analyze them to find out. Recent data seems to suggest Gene heard it first and was telling all who had a reason to care. He told Anthony, then
at DOE. Anthony would send his Avatars instead, because he likes it here. Each Avatar costs about $500 Million, delivered to neo.

All the neo's and comets shown have low enough gravity that relatively small amounts of rocket reaction mass, ( " rocket fuel " ) would be expended in a launch of rocket fuel or other payloads.

If you heat the neo's or comets

water steam comes off.

If you pump the water
into a water balloon tank
 as big as a blimp,

and then pump some water from the blimp

into a nuclear reactor water boiler,

and connect a rocket nozzle to the boiler,

then your rockets could deliver rocket fuel (water)
payloads that would weigh as much as
50 Space Shuttles.

Space Tanker for near zero gravity water objects of the
neo Solar System

(solsys_neos_pcomets) solar system from past pluto of 1200 largest near earth objects (red) and Jupiter family comets (white)
Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
  4-th Grade  Version
It sure is fun to see ourselves
from way past Saturn.

Where is the asteroid belt?
Gone. Mostly too hard to get to.
Computer filtered it out.

The white stars are the comets that repeatedly come back.
Most of those comets are moving to fast to catch,
but we like them exactly because they are
oil-shale-like objects,

with such low gravity
 I could toss a ton a hundred feet.

Probably stinking salty water,
and tar pit flavor dust.

          Your Species is Blind
          Homo Sapiens is practically blind.
           They can't see any of those
                   pictures above,
                    at all.
                          scroll up or down to see some
            Their eyes only span from
                 red to violet.

                 How Lame.

               They usually can't see the bed at night
               with the lights off.

         They bonk the bed posts
         with their toes,
         and bonk their head, nose
             bronk onk ouch!
         We don't need the lights.
         We digi sapiens have
                digitally algorithmic hyperspectral eyes.
         We can see deep deep infrared.
        We can see through others eyes,
        or many eyes.

        That means we don't need the lights to see
                 through your clothes.
        You humans are blind.

        If you were a digi sapiens,
             you could just point your digital eye 'droid,
             or your digital eye pod,
             at the sky
        and see through a non-human eye
             and the sky would be full of these near earth objects.

                   They are invisible because
                        your species is blind.

Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011

Just the big neo's, with 11 AU window. Saturn is the upper right blue planet. Jupiter is the next closer one in. Then Ceres is in the middle of it. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars can be seen with difficulty as blue or red dots.

Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
Notice the donut.
It's comet dust. It seems to be corralled inside Jupiter's orbit and seems to end just inside Mars orbit.
4-th Grade
This is comet dust.
Comets are water things.

We live right at the edge
of where the water things are.

The Blue Fog
is our Water Donut.

There just have to be some comets in there
because of all that comet dust.

The periodic comet orbits are plotted as points with equal time between orbit point dots.
Doing it this way, deliberately not connecting the dots, results in being able to
"see" the chance of finding a water-ice permafrost object in any given region.
The fog density is the approximate probability. Credit Dr. Mark Sykes
Director, Planetary Science Institute,
who suggested we plot it this way during the mid 1990's.

Notice the "donut" starting at Jupiter's orbit and ending somewhere between Earth and Mars orbit.
The first observation of this was made by Thomas Larson of the Idaho National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy, mid 1990's.

(solsys_pcomets_orbitdust) solar system from sun to Jupiter showing periodic comets and their orbit debris tubes
Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
The water donut stars include the periodic comets and their orbits.
We live at the edge of the donut hole in the center.
(Saturn is about +4 vertical, +8 horizontal)

4-th Grade

A view from past Neptune, of a 22 AU wide projection.

We included the "lost" P/comets because their dust and stones are there smeared near and throughout their orbits, somewhere.
This is the same picture as above it, but with the actual position of the periodic comet white stars included.

One might imagine that the apparent concentration of comets and dust at about 60 degrees from Jupiter represents a dynamic Trojan formation. One must ask Sykes or other neologists if that is real or just figment.

It seems that Jupiter herds the comets to inside its orbit. Maybe Mars and Earth herd them inside their orbits as well, where the sun heats the water away and leaves just mineral rocks. This is speculation.

Water is extracted from comets by heating permafrost to 1 Celsius, vaporizing the water.  Water is extracted from friable objects by roasting to ~ 300 Celsius to cause dehydration reactions, releasing steam. Non-trivial issues related to condensing water in alsmot zero gravity, foaming, and removing disolved salts and other contaminations require precise knowledge of actual object properties to solve.

Further processing such as electrolysis and cryogenic liquefaction to produce liquid hydrogen, and/or liquid oxygen can incur orders of magnitude higher complexity and cost.
See, I told you.
   We turned on the comet filter's
              "pass-allow" function
        so we could see the
        water ice tar balls.

That comet dust
is realy nasty.
It sandblasts your
delicate rocket ship,
antenna's, camera's, and such,
when you are coming and going.
No picnic.

You are here, near the center.
   Where is the Sun?
    I count Mercury Venus Earth
That's where we are.

    Mars, Ceres
    Jupiter Saturn
That's our neo solar system.

How do you get the water out?
Like a black widow spider

   her web and spindly legs holds it tightly in her grip.
With a poison hot-bite
   sucks the gogo juice water

   from its massive neo body.

Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
The orange stars close to the Sun
and scary close to Earth and its orbit,
are the largest 1000 near earth objects.
Some are crushable chunks that give off steam when you roast them.

The white stars are the comets that repeatedly come back.
The blue white dust are what you find along a comet's orbit.

The same as above now filtering in the 1 km or greater sized near earth objects. The red stars are the largest ~ 1000 neo's.

Comet dust of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
          A close up of the comet orbits, "comet dust",
featuring Ceres, the blue "planet" dot at -1 vertical, -2 horizontal.

Professioinal Version 4-th Grade version
Only the comet orbits are shown,
with planets and sun only for reference.

Ceres, at -2 x, -1 y, was recently observed to have water ice on its surface. It has low gravity (~ 1 / 36 that of Earth).

Launches can be reasonable using Ceres water as rocket reaction mass or for rocket fuel.

The background, blue fog brightness is also approximately the probability density of finding a water-ice object in that region.

Ceres is Rich.

low gravity,
easy to get on and off,

I bet, but don't really know, it has
deep deep warm caverns.
tens of miles deep.
It's a giant hotel.
I am making this up.
Nobody knows yet.

Water inside, highly certain.

Great Location:
comets everywhere
asteroids everywhere
close enough to Jupiter
to go to their moons and back.

Very Far Away:
If you thought an 18 hour plane ride to Australia was bad,
try 18 months in a cramped, stinking porta-potty space ship, with a crew that is really starting to get on your nerves.

80 deg zero tip
Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
a view of the neo solar system tipped almost edge on,
 from past Pluto, and
Algorithmic filtering shows only the repeating comets and their orbits.
blue-white-dots ... repeating comets
white fog ... comet orbits and dust
The red object is Uranus, and the red one above it is smog laden Saturn, as references.

Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
Close up of comets and comet dust density

Water Objects of the neo solar system.
for 12 April 2011
Close up of just neo's, no comets.
About a third of neo's are water objects
of some mineral kind.
Shown here is what we would see
 if we could see
deep deep infrared at night,
and digitally filter to select just neo's.

                                        water candidate near earth objects for 12 April 2011, enhanced.
You live here,
at approximately -0.6 vertical, -0.6 horizontal.

neo's enhanced to show the probability density of $ Trillion objects considered "near earth". Some significant fraction are accessible using a neofuel space tanker.

 4-th Grade
If my eyes were as good as an owl's,
and big across as my arm,
and digital,
and if  I could see the cool color of cool heat,
I would see the sky full of things.

I would see their color and would know which ones
would likely be rocket fuel ore.

( short story:
"This is what I see.
    I have big, hyperspectral eyes,
        and a digitally algorithmic hyperspectral imager.
All that stuff is money to me.
       That's what I see."
    said the Asperger kid
    to the dylexic kid
    as they talked incessantly."    )

45 deg, zero tip, 7 AU radius
Water Objects of the neo Solar System
for 12 April 2011

In a different hyperspectral mapping than before,
and now looking at the solar system from 45 degrees away from looking down at it;

blue white: the repeating comets and their orbits
white stars: near earth objects
white spheres: planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter
largest orbit: Jupiter's
Sun: black dot in the center.
We don't yet know why there appear to be concentrations and gaps along Jupiter's orbit.

4th Grade:
     The sky
         on the night side of Earth
         ought to be full of
             water objects.
     But most of those looking
     can not see the cool dim glow of heat.

     They are humanoids,
     a relatively blind species.

     It's fun to see
     how we live in a
     swarm of things
that could make us rich,
     that could be:
          rocket fuel gas stations in space
     or could:
          smash into Earth and end it all.    

neo space.
for 12 April 2011
near earth object space.
Close up of the water-objects candidates in the space near earth.

A fraction of the red and white stars
would be worth    each    at least $ 1 Trillion
delivered to a gas station near the moon,
we estimated.
We can not charge customers very much, or they won't buy it.
Economics and the market prevented us from charging customers
more than about $100 per kilogram
( $ 50 per pound ) in our estimates,
which is about 50 times less than current price.

Water is rocket reaction mass (propellant)
          for steam rockets

Water is rocket fuel ore.
          For powerful cryogenic and nuclear heated rockets,
         Liquid Hydrogen
, Liquid Oxygen.

This is just scratch paper.
We are changing it all the time.
It is also the first time anyone I know of has seen the
       solar system of near earth objects
this way, from this angle,
through "digitally algorithmic hyperspectral eyes"
that filter in favor of gas stations in space.

It is just a draft, our scratch paper.

I also put it here because it was exciting.

Expect colleagues and friends to see it.

comments to:     patent  @  neofuel .com

.. Anthony
2011-04.28_1354, 2011-04-29_0901,  2011-05.03_1200,  2011-05-03_2039, 
2011-05-04_0033, 2011-05-05_1429 2011_05_06_2357
, 2011-05-10_1348
2011-05-11_1350, 2011-05-12_1026, 2011-05-13_0053 2011-05-19_1424



The Missing Piece
that would enable us to occupy the solar system
/A Zuppero/
Anthony Zuppero

The digitally algorithmic hyperspectral images
of the
water object candidate micro galaxy we are inside of
just simply jolted me.

When I first saw them
 it was like waking up
into a new universe  where we just found
                     the missing physics piece
                                          to enable us to occupy the solar system.

We were missing
"the reaction mass"
needed to
conserve momentum
when accelerating through a total vacuum."

That is why we failed to go to space
and become a space faring nation.

We were trying to violate the law of
conservation of momentum.

It is a law of physics.

The missing piece.

With this one puzzle piece
reaction mass,

we can travel the solar system.

Without this puzzle piece,
reaction mass,
we could not get on and off the moon.

Everybody knew it.
By now, after 50 years going to space,
we knew.

NASA and the USA and the world
were missing a piece that
the laws of physics demanded be there.
There was no reaction mass in the vacuum,
 in space.


we can not go anywhere.

We are stuck here
with the terrorists and tax collectors,
with no way off.

That was my universe before 12 April 2011.
like spashed in the face
by a bucket of fresh mountain rushing snow melt water
to wake you up,

you have the reaction mass to make it go.
The missing piece:
       massive discovery of reaction mass
Can you say
     "super califragilistic expialidocous" ?
      ( Julie Andrews, "Mary Poppins" )
Can you say
" digitally algorithmic hyperspectral imager " ?
Water is the missing reaction mass.
Even the rocks in space
can hold water.